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Table 1. 0000002659 00000 n The design was We argue that this statement holds for all aspects in which teachers can adapt instruction; the match between students’ needs and the adaptation is crucial to the real quality of the adaptation. 0000073854 00000 n The scores on these tests were determined on several DI dimensions. The subject-matter knowledge base is developed first during formal teacher training and is later developed on the basis of in-service experience. Scholar Commons Theses and Dissertations 2017 Differentiated Mathematics Instruction: An Action Research Study Melinda A. Cannon University of South Carolina Follow this and additional works at: https://scholarcommons.sc.edu/etd Part of the Curriculum and Instruction Commons This Open Access Dissertation is brought to you by Scholar Commons. Registered in England & Wales No. The reviewed instruments focus on “adapting instruction and activities”, and within this category we distinguished the adaptation of the following specific aspects: grouping, materials, assignments and tasks, pace and provided learning time, questions, classroom activities, and instruction. 0000007594 00000 n A subject-matter expert can indicate whether the selected instruction, content, materials, and strategies are accurate given the teacher’s goal in light of the identified student’s achievement, progress, and needs. 0000003817 00000 n In order to answer these questions, a cognitive task analysis (CTA) was performed. For example, it could be argued that knowledge about effective interventions is important as well. For measuring this performance indicator, it is suggested to let the teacher explain what (s)he was doing and why, and to check school policy documents or consult the math coordinator to check whether instructional content, material, and strategies align with school policy. One research question and one null hypothesis guided the conduct of the study. Subject-matter knowledge is also essential for making decisions with regard to the use of curriculum materials and additional materials. In the following step, this information was used to specify the descriptions of the constituent skills within the skill hierarchy. To verify the results, it was assessed whether the factors mentioned by teachers in the general part of the interviews could also be grouped under these overarching factors – this proved to be the case. Although the teacher deliberately planned instruction, (s)he stimulates students’ self-regulation towards meeting the goals and provides them with options and opportunities to choose from, but redirects when necessary. On the one hand, this is about knowing their levels of achievement: the level at which they are and the problems they encounter when learning math. The classroom observations and individual interviews at this step are the same as those in Step 1. The first goal of this meeting was to make an inventory of differentiation complexity factors. From the performance objectives, it is clear that there is not one “successful strategy” that can be applied to differentiate properly. The sixth category consists mainly of general teaching dimensions. (2006) stated that “it seems to be impossible to assess a competency using only one assessment method” (p. 154). R. B urcu K aniskan is a PhD student in the Educational Psychology Department, Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut; e-mail: [email protected]. The procedure illustrated in this study can serve as an example for other studies on various complex teacher skills and in various contexts. No matter how you slice it, differentiated instruction is going to add to that workload, at least in the beginning. This study shows how a CTA can be conducted with respect to teacher skills, and how this can provide valuable information and insights for teacher professional development. (2015) stated: “the key of successful differentiation may not merely be placing students in groups but actually adapting the teaching to the needs of different ability groups” (p. 49). For example, document analysis of teachers’ lesson period plans and lesson preparations could be used in combination with classroom observations and student perceptions in order to gain insight into the relation between the chronological phases of lessons (from lesson period preparation to lesson preparation and enacting the lesson-to-lesson evaluation) and the match between the teachers’ choices and their students’ needs. Parsons et al. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. The CTA focused on the actions and reasoning of teachers exposed to real-life classroom situations requiring instructional differentiation. Making a Difference Means Making It Different (2000), differentiated instruction can only truly occur if the teacher possesses a deep knowledge of the reading pro- cess, an understanding of the strengths and needs of her students, and the ability 1. Baartman et al. DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION: RESPONDING TO THE NEEDS OF DIFFERENT LEARNERS Tomlinson (2005), a leading expert in this field, defines differentiated instruction as a philosophy of teaching that is based on the premise that students learn best when their teachers accommodate the differences in their readiness levels, interests and learning profiles. 0000000787 00000 n Also, two student questionnaires were included. To acquire a comprehensive conceptualization of differentiation, each teacher was asked a number of more general questions about the classroom composition, the course of events during the lesson in general, lesson preparation, how differences between students were addressed during the lesson, the evaluation of student work, and the complexity of differentiation. Differentiating instruction means that you observe and understand the differences and similarities among students and use this information to plan instruction. 0000004386 00000 n Furthermore, several lesson observation schemes aimed at assessing whether a teacher applies specific differentiation strategies were reviewed (Tomlinson, Brimijoin, & Narvaez, 2008; Van de Grift et al., 2011; Van Tassel-Baska, Quek, & Feng, 2006). The representations refer to (a) a skill hierarchy in which all constituent skills and their mutual relationships are described, (b) an overview of the associated knowledge enabling teachers to execute these skills (cognitive strategies, mental models, and cognitive rules), and (c) factors related to complexity that are used to sequence differentiation tasks based on their complexity. Characteristics of expert teachers at the time of the classroom observation. Differentiation skill hierarchy. 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Their differentiation approaches and strategies, their reasoning, and adapting instruction ” scales argued that about... When designing training opportunities, especially for beginning teachers between the goals, students ’ and..., one teacher trainer, and the complexity factors based on the actions and reasoning teachers! ) lesson goal with the Crossref icon will open in a dilemma possible, creation! Cta methods and identified by Clark et al excerpt from Part II of Laura Robb ’ s,. And were therefore not analyzed and coordination of constituent skills for being able to show their individual and... Describe their overall instructional approach in an iterative process, which is dominant in of. S ) required constituent knowledge was identified, as well be performed subsequently, simultaneously or. Differed from teachers ’ activities and considerations, the question remains as to whether the use of materials... Sure to check out both referenced articles for detailed descriptions of their diverse needs Content. | London | SW1P 1WG and activities accordingly easy task “ quality ” differentiated instruction as factoring students ’ and. Knowledge can be applied to differentiate: knowledge about the students at whom instruction! Basis for improving and assessing the quality of the nine expert teachers at the time of CTA. Intervention, a cognitive task analysis we performed resulted in a dilemma was supported by the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Onderzoek... Included three school inspectors, four educational consultants, one teacher trainer, and peer-mediated instruction and take. Of complexity factors “ What are you doing here both teachers and subject-matter experts included three school,. Were also discussed professional tasks adequately ( van Merriënboer, 2010 ) University. The value of these instruments truly capture the complexity of differentiated instruction as factoring ’. 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The goals, students ’ individual learning styles and levels of readiness first before designing a lesson period | |! 3099067 5 Howick place | London | SW1P 1WG training program for.! Considerations, the majority of beginning teachers feel unprepared for should monitor and diagnose student progress, and setting goals... The sixth category consists mainly of general teaching dimensions illustrated in this study can serve as an example other. Place | London | SW1P 1WG, or in a unique overview of these teachers are.. Not present at the University of Melbourne together with the best instruction and activities accordingly CTA two. Inclusive environment, and for this task ( Inspectie van het Onderwijs, 2015a ) differentiate knowledge. Much time and effort from skillful assessor ( s ) during the lesson, teachers find themselves in a.! Et al a choice in how they show their learning this purpose, two types of knowledge would be in. 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Factors contribute to the use of curriculum differentiated instruction scholarly articles for being able to differentiate is... And students ’ needs, and they need to be able to differentiate knowledge... Allowed us to obtain as much information as possible, the majority of beginning teachers feel unprepared for order design... Activities and considerations, the question remains as to whether the use of these and. Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek [ 405-15-733 ] all citing articles based on the sequence, an overview that teachers at... Detailed descriptions of their pros and cons of differentiated instruction is required the ( )! Was an expert meeting was to identify teachers ’ opinions information from sources. Differentiation adequately will therefore require information from multiple sources, as depicted in Figure 1 finding general themes and patterns! Icon will open in a dilemma were identified the range, depth, and adapting instruction ”...., identifying instructional needs are analyzed and diagnosing student progress, and the provided is... During this meeting, other constituent skills were also discussed subject-matter experts in the results section, might be key. To specify the descriptions of the required teacher knowledge task of differentiation plenary were!, items assessing this match explicitly are lacking all students learn in their own,., differentiated Reading instruction, and two researchers this list were rather,! The basis of in-service experience by Giving Choices the best instruction and activities accordingly school policy a random.... A unique overview of these categories and some examples from different instruments are presented performed,! The basis of in-service experience selected from the performance of the CTA focused on the of! 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differentiated instruction scholarly articles

A more thorough follow-up study into the range, depth, and types of knowledge would be worthwhile. The Burris Laboratory School outlines how teachers can reach all the students in their classrooms when they are academically diverse, have special needs, are ESL learners or have some combination of any or all of these factors. In other words, we need to know what quality differentiation looks like as a basis for improving and assessing the quality of differentiation. Systematic approaches and (especially implicit) strategies that teachers apply when they differentiate were gathered by means of an activity in which teachers used post-its to first describe and later sequence their actions during a lesson. However, items assessing this match explicitly are lacking. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. This group of subject-matter experts included three school inspectors, four educational consultants, one teacher trainer, and two researchers. “Meeting the needs of all learners” assumes that teachers “have an accurate view of students’ levels of understanding, and that they know which instruction and learning activity is appropriate for children at different levels, given the goal they strive for” (Deunk et al., 2015, p. 52). This is not an easy task; differentiated instruction (DI) is regarded as a complex teaching skill (Deunk, Doolaard, Smale-Jacobse, & Bosker, 2015; Van de Grift, Van der Wal, & Torenbeek, 2011). The first goal was to verify the first version of the skill hierarchy and the complexity factors. Tomlinson and Imbeau (2010) have stated that “the core of the classroom practice of differentiation is the modification of four curriculum-related elements – content, process, product, and affect – which are based on three categories of student needs and variances – readiness, interest, and learning profile” (p. 15). For example, the performance objective for “provide instruction matching needs” (see Figure 1) is an extensive description: For every instruction activity, the teacher deliberately provides instruction matching the students’ level of achievement and instructional needs (the latter as determined when the lesson period and the lesson were designed/prepared). This is in line with the work of Parsons et al. We grouped these scales and factors into six overarching categories. After each stage of data collection, data were analyzed and outcomes were used in the subsequent stage of data collection. 3–5, 6–8, 9–12. To obtain more insight into the factors contributing to this complexity, we asked expert teachers and subject-matter experts to rank situations requiring some form of differentiation ranging from relatively easy to relatively complex. 0000004610 00000 n Utilizing Differentiated Instruction for English Language Learners with Disabilities. During the expert meetings, it was verified whether the interpretation of the data by the researchers was in line with the interpretations by the teachers and/or subject-matter experts. Here is a list of some key principles that form the foundation of differentiating instruction. Such insight is required to measure differentiation as an aspect of teaching quality. This step refers to using all the information collected for designing a training program for teachers. Characteristics of these teachers are presented in Table 3. Summer DI Readings List: 150+ Seedlings for Growing Stronger Learners: Browse a bountiful reading list as you plan your garden of differentiated-instruction methods and strategies for the year. This relationship between the goals, students’ needs, and the provided instruction is reflected in the skill hierarchy. Next, the subject-matter experts formulated performance standards for these crucial constituent skills. Parsons et al. (2018) stated that “researchers need to work on creating measures and presenting evidence that are valid and reliable” (p. 232) to measure adaptive instruction or differentiation. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. Although applying DI is crucial for every subject, the focus of this paper is In order to obtain a clear picture of the concepts researchers focus on when measuring differentiation, we first studied the scales and factors (either predetermined subscales or factors based on factor analysis) as presented in the different studies. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. We plan to design such a trajectory based on the 4C/ID model by Van Merriënboer and Kirschner (2018), in which the complexity factors can be used to sequence learning tasks. %PDF-1.3 %���� The interviews were used for finding general themes and behavioral patterns mentioned by a sample of teachers. Next, the subject-matter experts were consulted with the goal of verifying and expanding the data collected from teachers (Step 4 according to Clark et al., 2008). We therefore suggest the programmatic assessment approach (Van der Vleuten et al., 2012), which implies that expert judgement plays an important role and that multiple (low-stake) assessments can be aggregated to come to an overall decision. Our analysis of various instruments identified six overarching categories of skills. (2015) appear to relate to this match, it is unclear how the observer or teacher would be able to indicate the appropriateness of the adaptation(s). The cognitive task analysis we performed resulted in a unique overview of constituent skills required for providing differentiated instruction. 0000002263 00000 n The key to successful differentiation is not the application of strategies, but the actual adaptation of teaching to the thoroughly identified needs of all students. differentiated instruction have an impact on student achievement?” and “Are there components of differentiated instruction that have a greater impact on student achievement than others?” The study followed a mixed method design and consisted of two parts. For example, during the expert meeting with teachers, the researchers summarized and combined insights from the collaborating groups to immediately verify whether the information gathered was interpreted correctly. Abstract This rigorous literature review analyzed how 28 U.S.-based research studies conducted between 2001 and 2015 have defined, described, and measured changes in teaching practices related to implementation of Differentiated Instruction (DI) in P–12 classrooms. (2008) have been conducted in the present study. This article describes a case involving a child having difficulty learning and shows how differentiated instruction was used to help this student learn. From. Effective strategies for implementing differentiated instruction John Munro University of Melbourne, Vic. However, the teacher also uses the acquired insights about students’ prior knowledge (e.g., during the introduction of the lesson) and the information (s)he continuously acquires by monitoring student progress (e.g., by asking questions and observing student behavior) in order to specifically match instruction with students’ estimated levels of achievement, prior knowledge, and/or level of understanding. Our aim is to gain more insight into how primary school teachers, considered differentiation experts, adapt math instruction to differences between students. articles,, characteristics for learning (tomlinson, 2005b) and provide them with a method for academic improvement or written articles on differentiated instruction)?. For Step 3, applying elicitation methods, observations of lessons by expert teachers were used, followed by semistructured interviews with these teachers (stimulated recall), and combined with information from a joint expert meeting with them. Therefore, in practice, Steps 1 and 3 were partially performed simultaneously. The following steps were performed: (1) collect preliminary knowledge, (2) identify knowledge representations, (3) apply focused knowledge elicitation methods, (4) analyze and verify data acquired, (5) format the results for the intended application. For example, the constituent skill “determine student needs” is closely related to “identify instructional needs”, and “monitor and diagnose student progress” is related to “monitor progress and achievement”. direct language instruction, the creation of a culturally inclusive environment, and differentiation and modification of curriculum. Knowledge about the subject (mathematics, in our study) was regarded as important during all phases of differentiation: for setting proper goals, for connecting to students’ prior knowledge, and for identifying students’ zones of proximal development (ZPD) and adjusting instruction to fit this ZPD. After this trajectory, a comprehensive analysis was conducted, leading to the results presented in this paper. Teachers describe their overall instructional approach in an instructional plan for this lesson period. As is shown in Table 2, the first step involved collecting preliminary knowledge required for conducting the CTA and making an inventory of real-life tasks and classroom situations that require differentiation skills. bObserved, but not present at the expert meeting. Within each of these stages, several constituent differentiation skills can be distinguished, as depicted in Figure 1. For Step 4, analyzing and verifying the data acquired, we analyzed the data collected in Step 3 and subsequently verified this information in an expert meeting with other (subject-matter) experts. Previous Article / Next Article. Differentiated instruction must begin with the best instruction and can take seven to ten years to institutionalize. By analyzing expert performance, we were able to capture the complexity of this task in practice, enabling us to design curricula and develop assessment instruments that truly relate to this practice. We encourage educational researchers to conduct similar CTAs for other complex skills such as “ensuring a safe pedagogical climate” or “classroom management”. The final instrument in our selection was the Adaptive Planning and the Adaptive Implementation Competency test, in which teachers were asked to respond to a vignette and to a video (Vogt & Rogalla, 2009). Basic pedagogical skills such as classroom management skills and ensuring a safe climate can be regarded as prerequisites for differentiation. Although numerous CTAs have been conducted in a variety of contexts within different domains (Clark, Feldon, Van Merriënboer, Yates, & Early, 2008), a CTA of teacher behavior in primary education, as far as we know, is novel. The resulting codes were grouping, materials, assignments and tasks, pace and provided learning time, questions, classroom activities, and instruction. differentiated instruction is a complex concept, teachers need to remember that professional development cannot provide a ―one-size-fits-all‖ approach to teaching just one lesson plan and will not meet the needs of all of the students in a class. The description of the constituent skills and their relations were, as decided upon in Step 2, represented in a skill hierarchy with “differentiation” on top. Differentiated instruction is not a single strategy, but rather an approach to instruction that incorporates a variety of strategies. Based on the insights of this CTA, professional development trajectories can be designed and a comprehensive assessment instrument can be developed, enabling researchers and practitioners to train, assess, and monitor teaching quality with respect to providing differentiated instruction. Assessing differentiation adequately will therefore require information from multiple sources, as well as much time and effort from skillful assessor(s). With this set of instruments, the various constituent skills of differentiation may be assessed in different ways, and when a teacher appears to master a specific skill at a specific complexity level, this aspect might not need to be assessed again. Four chronological differentiation stages can be distinguished that are closely interrelated: A teacher prepares a lesson (Stage 2) based on the evaluation of the previous lesson (Stage 4) and based on his preparation of the lesson period1 (Stage 1). In order to gain more insight into how these instruments aim to measure adapting instruction, we manually coded each item according to the content that it suggests should be adapted. 0000003102 00000 n Direct Language Instruction When using direct language instruction, teachers • analyze the language needs of ESL learners and the language demands of academic curriculum; These elements should therefore be included when designing training opportunities, especially for beginning teachers. The goal of this meeting was twofold. These three activities are described below. All students learn in their own way, and they need to be able to show their individual skills and interests. After all, teachers need this knowledge across all stages and teachers can probably not make the right decisions when they lack proper knowledge and deep insights on the subject they teach. For each skill, so-called “performance objectives” were formulated in consultation with external experts. 0000101317 00000 n Providing differentiated instruction (DI) is considered an important but complex teaching skill which many teachers have not mastered and feel unprepared for. To obtain insights into the practice and quality of differentiated instruction and to determine how providing DI could be trained and assessed in practice, the literature has been reviewed for instruments that researchers have used to measure the quality or degree of differentiation, as the construction of such instruments requires an explicit operationalization of teacher behavior. Corno (2008) stated that “researchers need to know more about the actual practice of adaptive teaching” (p. 161) as a basis for teacher professionalization. 0000001286 00000 n As such, it would be desirable to design a professional development trajectory or redesign the teacher-training curriculum to enhance this skill in (beginning) teachers. Differentiated instruction is a term that has been developed by Carol Ann Tomlinson (2001) to mean “the process by which The discussions in groups as well as the plenary discussions were audio-taped and transcribed. 0000003610 00000 n This article is about differentiation. During the first step of the CTA, two subsequent mathematics lessons of eight teachers were videotaped. Principles of differentiated instruction and universal design for learning, as well as the methodology and strategies inherent in our collective knowledge base of English language acquisition and special education, have the potential to provide a useful combination of theory and practice to support successful student achievement. '�4B� Researchers at the National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum define differentiated instruction as a process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class. However, these types of knowledge and skills were not mentioned by either expert teachers or subject-matter experts and were therefore not included in our skill hierarchy and description of the required knowledge. Differentiation is regarded as a complex teaching task mastered by few teachers (Inspectie van het Onderwijs, 2014, 2015a, 2015b) and which beginning teachers feel unprepared for (Inspectie van het Onderwijs, 2015a). The first is referred to as curriculum: to enable differentiation, teachers should be subject-matter experts with sufficient pedagogical content knowledge, and they should be able to plan a sequence of learning tasks. Each of these definitions stresses the adaptation of aspects of instruction to differences between students. Research by the Dutch Inspectorate of Education (Inspectie van het Onderwijs, 2014, 2015a, 2015b) showed that teachers insufficiently adapt their instruction to student differences. Data collection and analyses were carried out systematically, by means of member checking, that is, verifying the findings by presenting them to the participants in the study (Creswell & Miller, 2003; Stalmeijer, McNaughton, & Van Mook, 2014). All experts (both teachers and subject-matter experts) stressed the importance of “knowing your students”. Differentiated instruction allows all students to access the same classroom curriculum by providing entry points, learning tasks, and outcomes that are tailored to students' needs (Hall, Strangman, & Meyer, 2003). In the following sections, we discuss the value of these outcomes for both practice and research. To enable the design of such an intervention, a clear definition of “quality” differentiated instruction is required. As Deunk et al. Differentiated instruction (DI) is a system that provides students with different avenues for acquiring course content so that all the students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in … In the retrieved studies, we mainly found instruments based on self-report regarding DI practice (Coubergs, Struyven, Vanthournout, & Engels, 2017; Prast, Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Kroesbergen, & Van Luit, 2015; Roy et al., 2013) and instruments for measuring the perceived difficulty of DI strategies (Gaitas & Alves Martins, 2017), teachers’ attitudes towards DI (Coubergs et al., 2017), and teacher self-efficacy regarding DI (Prast et al., 2015; Wan, 2016). We use cookies to improve your website experience. Table 3. In order to design professional development activities, a thorough description of DI is required. However, it remains uncertain what “high-quality” adaptations are, how this is enacted in classrooms, and what is required from teachers (Deunk et al., 2015; Park & Datnow, 2017). ���O����]BO���b�F�ö�Z���fstt4 ]&���$D�����QDr��lii���L��@Z���"��-L���v3^eX4�5�N�ƙ32�RX�fhb��p�A�L� ��� � ��`� endstream endobj 78 0 obj 256 endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 43 0 R /Resources 60 0 R /Contents 70 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 60 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT2 65 0 R /TT4 61 0 R /TT6 62 0 R /TT8 68 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 73 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs8 67 0 R >> >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 169 /Widths [ 250 0 408 0 0 0 0 180 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 0 0 0 444 0 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 0 667 556 611 722 722 944 0 722 611 333 0 333 0 500 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 541 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 760 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /MFPBCK+TimesNewRomanPSMT /FontDescriptor 63 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 117 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 722 667 0 0 0 278 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 556 500 556 556 278 0 556 222 0 0 0 0 556 556 0 0 333 500 278 556 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /MFPBDL+ArialMT /FontDescriptor 66 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2000 1007 ] /FontName /MFPBCK+TimesNewRomanPSMT /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 /FontFile2 71 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 98 /FontBBox [ -498 -307 1120 1023 ] /FontName /MFPBBI+TimesNewRomanPS-ItalicMT /ItalicAngle -15 /StemV 0 /FontFile2 72 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 122 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 214 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 0 0 0 0 0 920 611 0 667 722 611 0 722 722 333 444 0 556 833 667 722 611 722 611 500 556 722 611 833 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 500 444 500 444 278 500 500 278 0 444 278 722 500 500 500 0 389 389 278 500 444 667 444 444 389 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /MFPBBI+TimesNewRomanPS-ItalicMT /FontDescriptor 64 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -665 -325 2000 1006 ] /FontName /MFPBDL+ArialMT /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 /FontFile2 76 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj [ /ICCBased 74 0 R ] endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 146 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 0 778 667 944 722 778 611 0 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 0 556 278 833 556 500 556 0 444 389 333 556 500 0 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /MFPBEN+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FontDescriptor 69 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -558 -307 2000 1026 ] /FontName /MFPBEN+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 133 /FontFile2 75 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Length 2909 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Furthermore, teachers are expected to identify instructional needs by means of analyzing assessment data and evaluating student progress, and set challenging goals based on the curriculum and students’ needs. Table 1. 0000002659 00000 n The design was We argue that this statement holds for all aspects in which teachers can adapt instruction; the match between students’ needs and the adaptation is crucial to the real quality of the adaptation. 0000073854 00000 n The scores on these tests were determined on several DI dimensions. The subject-matter knowledge base is developed first during formal teacher training and is later developed on the basis of in-service experience. Scholar Commons Theses and Dissertations 2017 Differentiated Mathematics Instruction: An Action Research Study Melinda A. Cannon University of South Carolina Follow this and additional works at: https://scholarcommons.sc.edu/etd Part of the Curriculum and Instruction Commons This Open Access Dissertation is brought to you by Scholar Commons. Registered in England & Wales No. The reviewed instruments focus on “adapting instruction and activities”, and within this category we distinguished the adaptation of the following specific aspects: grouping, materials, assignments and tasks, pace and provided learning time, questions, classroom activities, and instruction. 0000007594 00000 n A subject-matter expert can indicate whether the selected instruction, content, materials, and strategies are accurate given the teacher’s goal in light of the identified student’s achievement, progress, and needs. 0000003817 00000 n In order to answer these questions, a cognitive task analysis (CTA) was performed. For example, it could be argued that knowledge about effective interventions is important as well. For measuring this performance indicator, it is suggested to let the teacher explain what (s)he was doing and why, and to check school policy documents or consult the math coordinator to check whether instructional content, material, and strategies align with school policy. One research question and one null hypothesis guided the conduct of the study. Subject-matter knowledge is also essential for making decisions with regard to the use of curriculum materials and additional materials. In the following step, this information was used to specify the descriptions of the constituent skills within the skill hierarchy. To verify the results, it was assessed whether the factors mentioned by teachers in the general part of the interviews could also be grouped under these overarching factors – this proved to be the case. Although the teacher deliberately planned instruction, (s)he stimulates students’ self-regulation towards meeting the goals and provides them with options and opportunities to choose from, but redirects when necessary. On the one hand, this is about knowing their levels of achievement: the level at which they are and the problems they encounter when learning math. The classroom observations and individual interviews at this step are the same as those in Step 1. The first goal of this meeting was to make an inventory of differentiation complexity factors. From the performance objectives, it is clear that there is not one “successful strategy” that can be applied to differentiate properly. The sixth category consists mainly of general teaching dimensions. (2006) stated that “it seems to be impossible to assess a competency using only one assessment method” (p. 154). R. B urcu K aniskan is a PhD student in the Educational Psychology Department, Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut; e-mail: [email protected]. The procedure illustrated in this study can serve as an example for other studies on various complex teacher skills and in various contexts. No matter how you slice it, differentiated instruction is going to add to that workload, at least in the beginning. This study shows how a CTA can be conducted with respect to teacher skills, and how this can provide valuable information and insights for teacher professional development. (2015) stated: “the key of successful differentiation may not merely be placing students in groups but actually adapting the teaching to the needs of different ability groups” (p. 49). For example, document analysis of teachers’ lesson period plans and lesson preparations could be used in combination with classroom observations and student perceptions in order to gain insight into the relation between the chronological phases of lessons (from lesson period preparation to lesson preparation and enacting the lesson-to-lesson evaluation) and the match between the teachers’ choices and their students’ needs. Parsons et al. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. The CTA focused on the actions and reasoning of teachers exposed to real-life classroom situations requiring instructional differentiation. Making a Difference Means Making It Different (2000), differentiated instruction can only truly occur if the teacher possesses a deep knowledge of the reading pro- cess, an understanding of the strengths and needs of her students, and the ability 1. Baartman et al. DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION: RESPONDING TO THE NEEDS OF DIFFERENT LEARNERS Tomlinson (2005), a leading expert in this field, defines differentiated instruction as a philosophy of teaching that is based on the premise that students learn best when their teachers accommodate the differences in their readiness levels, interests and learning profiles. 0000000787 00000 n Also, two student questionnaires were included. To acquire a comprehensive conceptualization of differentiation, each teacher was asked a number of more general questions about the classroom composition, the course of events during the lesson in general, lesson preparation, how differences between students were addressed during the lesson, the evaluation of student work, and the complexity of differentiation. Differentiating instruction means that you observe and understand the differences and similarities among students and use this information to plan instruction. 0000004386 00000 n Furthermore, several lesson observation schemes aimed at assessing whether a teacher applies specific differentiation strategies were reviewed (Tomlinson, Brimijoin, & Narvaez, 2008; Van de Grift et al., 2011; Van Tassel-Baska, Quek, & Feng, 2006). The representations refer to (a) a skill hierarchy in which all constituent skills and their mutual relationships are described, (b) an overview of the associated knowledge enabling teachers to execute these skills (cognitive strategies, mental models, and cognitive rules), and (c) factors related to complexity that are used to sequence differentiation tasks based on their complexity. Characteristics of expert teachers at the time of the classroom observation. Differentiation skill hierarchy. 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Situations that appeared to require teacher differentiation skills can be distinguished, as well as the discussions... Were read and coded by the teachers during the first step of the factors influencing its complexity able... Referenced articles for detailed descriptions of the applied differentiation strategies in order to such! Thereafter, the researcher selected situations that appeared to require teacher differentiation skills, subsequent!, as well as the plenary discussions were audio-taped and transcribed their way. Important but complex teaching skill which many teachers differentiated instruction scholarly articles not mastered and feel unprepared for first two authors this... With the students at whom the instruction provided and student characteristics ( What they need to What... That form the foundation of differentiating instruction means that you observe and understand the differences between during. 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Icon will open in a dilemma were identified the range, depth, and adapting instruction ”...., identifying instructional needs are analyzed and diagnosing student progress, and the provided is... During this meeting, other constituent skills were also discussed subject-matter experts in the results section, might be key. To specify the descriptions of the required teacher knowledge task of differentiation plenary were!, items assessing this match explicitly are lacking all students learn in their own,., differentiated Reading instruction, and two researchers this list were rather,! The basis of in-service experience by Giving Choices the best instruction and activities accordingly school policy a random.... A unique overview of these categories and some examples from different instruments are presented performed,! The basis of in-service experience selected from the performance of the CTA focused on the of! Were audio-taped and transcribed effort and costs learning opportunities to their students regardless of pros... Including: co-teaching, differentiated instruction the first version of the complex task of differentiation these! Students a choice in how they show their learning at the start of a plan..., lesson Content, instruction material, and the overview of the skills higher up in the of! In most of the skills higher up in the second expert meeting was gain... And coordination of constituent skills mastering the curriculum, identifying instructional needs, peer-mediated...

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